Sunday, November 18, 2012

Manganese APEX Mineral

Manganese (Mn #25) is the next element on the periodic table for my APEX mineral collection. 
Wikipedia Manganese
Manganese Minerals - There are lots of Manganese minerals.
Manganosite (MnO) with 77% Manganese is the obvious APEX Mineral.  It only exists as inclusions in other minerals.  Manganosite probably has the simplest APEX Mineral formula (MnO) excepting native elements.  It sure has the correct name!  Native Manganese does exist but is rather rare.
Manganese is usually sourced from Pyrolusite (MnO2).  
Cave paintings contain manganese as pigments and are some of the oldest human artifacts.

A big news item in the 1970's were the attempts at mining an abundance of Manganese nodules from the ocean floor.  These mining attempts led directly to the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) and the Moon Treaty (1989).  Give credit to Manganese for creating the international body of law governing commercialization of the oceans, the moon, and celestial objects.
Manganese is essential to steel production.  It has unique sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties. Steelmaking accounts for 90% of Manganese demand.

Historically, most batteries (zinc-carbon and alkaline) contained Manganese.  The newer batteries do not (nickel-cadmium and lithium).
Manganese is essential for all life.  A broad range of enzymes contain Manganese including

  • oxidoreductases, 
  • transferases, 
  • hydrolases, 
  • lyases, 
  • isomerases, 
  • ligases, 
  • lectins, 
  • integrins
  • reverse transcriptases